Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol in the black turban snail (Tegula funebralis)
An acute study was carried out to determine the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) in the black turban snail (Tegula funebralis), an intertidal gastropod mollusc. Snails (n = 80), in four groups of 20, were exposed to 10 mg/l of [U-14C]PNP for 24 h in a static chamber in order to measure bioconcentration (total concentration factor, TCF); the absorption rate constant (Ka); the conditional uptake clearance (Ku), which represents the volume of water cleared of PNP per hour; the elimination rate constant (Ke); and the elimination half-life (t 1 2). Following exposure, the snails were transferred to a flow-through metabolism chamber for an additional 24 h. All eliminated residues were collected via Amberlite XAD-7 resin, identified by high-pressure liquid co-chromatography, and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. Using simplified equations, the ka, ku, ke, t 1 2, and TCF were calculated to be 0.06 ± 0.01/h, 3.28 ± 0.62 ml/g h-1, 0.84 ± 0.10/h, 0.84 ± 0.11h, and 0.13 ± 0.02, respectively. The snails depurated 89% of the retained residues, of which the majority remained unchanged PNP (96.1%); metabolites were identified to be p-nitrophenyl sulfate (1.7%),p-acetomidophenol (1.4%), p-nitroanisole (0.5%), and p-aminophenol (0.3%). © 1995.
Williamson, KC; Shofer, SL; Tjeerdema, RS
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