An animal model of fibrinolytic bleeding based on the rebleed phenomenon: application to a study of vulnerability of hemostatic plugs of different age.
The primary bleeding time is prolonged when tested during the infusion of both plasminogen activators and anticoagulants, and such sites frequently exhibit rebleeding after initial hemostatic control. This study describes an animal (rabbit) model which distinguishes fibrinolytic from anticoagulant hemorrhage and further applies the model to the study of hemostatic plugs of increasing age. In this model, rebleeding occurred from hemostatically-stable ear puncture sites induced prior to infusion of streptokinase (SK) or recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA), but not of heparin or hirudin. This distinction was apparent even for lesions induced only 15 minutes prior to the infusion and fibrinolytic bleeding was observed in such lesions induced up to 24 hours earlier. Post-infusion sites bled more quickly than did pre-infusion sites, and there was a gradual decrease in susceptibility of such prior trauma sites for rebleeding, evidenced not only by a lower proportion of sites that rebled, but also by a longer lag time after starting SK or rt-PA before such rebleeding occurred. At the dosages tested, SK showed a trend (not statistically significant) toward more sites that rebled, while rt-PA showed a trend towards a longer duration of rebleeding. Thus, this animal model of rebleeding appears to be unique for fibrinolytic agents and allows for more detailed study of the physiological mechanisms of such bleeding and for a multifaceted comparison of the bleeding potential of plasminogen activators.
Marder, VJ; Shortell, CK; Fitzpatrick, PG; Kim, C; Oxley, D
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