Regulation of the cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria. Identification of the cysteine residue involved in alpha-keto acid stimulation and intersubunit disulfide bond formation.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

The cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria is a homodimeric protein whose activity can be regulated by a redox-sensitive intersubunit sulfhydryl/disulfide system and by alpha-keto acids. After determining that the Arabidopsis alternative oxidase possesses the redox-sensitive sulfhydryl/disulfide system, site-directed mutagenesis of an Arabidopsis cDNA clone was used to individually change the two conserved Cys residues, Cys-128 and Cys-78, to Ala. Using diamide oxidation and chemical cross-linking of the protein expressed in Escherichia coli, Cys-78 was shown to be: 1) the Cys residue involved in the sulfhydryl/disulfide system; and 2) not required for subunit dimerization. The C128A mutant was stimulated by pyruvate, while the C78A mutant protein had little activity and displayed no stimulation by pyruvate. Mutating Cys-78 to Glu produced an active enzyme which was insensitive to pyruvate, consistent with alpha-keto acid activation occurring through a thiohemiacetal. These results indicate that Cys-78 serves as both the regulatory sulfhydryl/disulfide and the site of activation by alpha-keto acids. In light of these results, the previously observed effects of sulfhydryl reagents on the alternative oxidase of isolated soybean mitochondria were re-examined and were found to be in agreement with a single sulfhydryl residue being the site both of alpha-keto acid activation and of the regulatory sulfhydryl/disulfide system.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Rhoads, DM; Umbach, AL; Sweet, CR; Lennon, AM; Rauch, GS; Siedow, JN

Published Date

  • November 1998

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 273 / 46

Start / End Page

  • 30750 - 30756

PubMed ID

  • 9804851

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1083-351X

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0021-9258

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1074/jbc.273.46.30750


  • eng