Psychological sequelae of HIV infection and AIDS: Review of empirical findings
We review empirical studies that describe and explain the psychological sequelae of HIV infection. Following a brief discussion of methodological issues concerning this literature, studies of the psychological dimensions of HIV and AIDS are reviewed. Research shows that a wide-range of psychological distress reactions are associated with HIV infection. Depression appears to be prevalent in the early phases of HIV disease, subsiding during asymptomatic periods, and recurring with the onset of HIV-related illness symptoms. Depression is also complicated by frequency of bereavement from AIDS-related deaths. Suicide risk is high and follows a pattern similar to depression during the course of the disease. Anxiety and somatization are also prevalent among HIV infected persons. Unfortunately, anger and guilt, two important emotional reactions, have been extremely under-studied. The empirical literature leads to several practical implications for psychological consultation, assessment, and therapy for persons with HIV infection. © 1994.
Kalichman, SC; Sikkema, KJ
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