A comparison of light spot hydrophone and fiber optic probe hydrophone for lithotripter field characterization.
The performance of a newly developed light spot hydrophone (LSHD) in lithotripter field characterization was compared to that of the fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH). Pressure waveforms produced by a stable electromagnetic shock wave source were measured by the LSHD and FOPH under identical experimental conditions. In the low energy regime, focus and field acoustic parameters matched well between the two hydrophones. At clinically relevant high energy settings for shock wave lithotripsy, the measured leading compressive pressure waveforms matched closely with each other. However, the LSHD recorded slightly larger |P_| (p < 0.05) and secondary peak compressive pressures (p < 0.01) than the FOPH, leading to about 20% increase in total acoustic pulse energy calculated in a 6 mm radius around the focus (p = 0.06). Tensile pulse durations deviated ~5% (p < 0.01) due to tensile wave shortening from cavitation activity using the LSHD. Intermittent compression spikes and laser light reflection artifacts have been correlated to bubble activity based on simultaneous high-speed imaging analysis. Altogether, both hydrophones are adequate for lithotripter field characterization as specified by the international standard IEC 61846.
Smith, N; Sankin, GN; Simmons, WN; Nanke, R; Fehre, J; Zhong, P
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