Finite element comparison of single crystal vs. multi-layer composite arrays for medical ultrasound.
Finite element (PZFlex; Weidlinger Assoc., New York, NY and Los Altos, CA) simulations predict that for a 2-MHz phased array element with a single matching layer, the three-layer hybrid structure  increases the pulse echo signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by 16 dB over that from a single layer PZT element and -6 dB pulse echo fractional bandwidth from 58% for the PZT element to 75% for the hybrid element. Analogous finite element method (FEM) simulations of single crystal material [lead zinc niobate (PZN)-8% lead titanate (PT)] showed increased SNR by only 3.1 dB, but a -6 dB bandwidth of 108%.
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