Thrombin primes responsiveness of selective chemoattractant receptors at a site distal to G protein activation.
To define the molecular basis of human chemoattractant receptor regulation, rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells, which are thrombin-responsive, were transfected to stably express epitope-tagged receptors for C5a, interleukin-8 (IL-8), formylpeptides (e.g. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)), and platelet-activating factor (PAF). Here we demonstrate that both thrombin and a synthetic peptide ligand for the thrombin receptor (sequence SFLLRN) caused phosphorylation and heterologous desensitization of the receptors for C5a, IL-8, and PAF but not that for formylpeptides as measured by agonist-stimulated [35S]guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding to membranes. Consistent with the PAF receptor phosphorylation, both thrombin and thrombin receptor peptide inhibited phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca2+ mobilization, and degranulation stimulated by PAF. Unexpectedly, despite heterologous desensitization at the level of receptor/G protein activation, there was enhancement ("priming") by thrombin of subsequent activities stimulated by C5a and IL-8 as well as fMLP. The priming effect of thrombin was blocked by its inhibitor, hirudin. However, two other activators of the thrombin receptor, the peptide SFLLRN and trypsin, stimulated Ca2+ mobilization in RBL-2H3 cells but did not cause priming. In addition, SFLLRN and the thrombin receptor antagonist peptide FLLRN both inhibited thrombin-induced Ca2+ mobilization but not priming. Furthermore, the proteolytically active gamma-thrombin, which does not stimulate the tethered ligand thrombin receptor and caused little or no Ca2+ mobilization in RBL-2H3 cells, effectively primed the response to fMLP. These data demonstrate that heterologous receptor phosphorylation and attenuation of G protein activation are not, by themselves, sufficient for the inhibition of biological responses mediated by C5a and IL-8. Moreover, thrombin appears to utilize mechanism(s) independent of its tethered ligand receptor to selectively prime phospholipase C-mediated biological responses of the C5a, IL-8, and formylpeptide receptors but not PAF. Because C5a, IL-8, and formylpeptide activate phospholipase Cbeta2, whereas PAF stimulates a different phospholipase C, the striking selectivity of thrombin's priming may be mediated via its ability to enhance receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase Cbeta2.
Ali, H; Tomhave, ED; Richardson, RM; Haribabu, B; Snyderman, R
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