Signal transduction in cells following binding of chemoattractants to membrane receptors.
Binding of chemoattractants to specific cell surface receptors on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) initiates a variety of biologic responses, including directed migration (chemotaxis), release of superoxide anions, and lysosomal enzyme secretion. Chemoattractant receptors belong to a large class of receptors which utilize the hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides to initiate Ca2+ mobilization and cellular activation. Receptor occupancy leads to phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) yielding inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and 1,2 sn-diacylglycerol (DAG). These products synergize to initiate cell activation via calcium mobilization (IP3) and protein kinase C activation (DAG). Pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates some GTP binding proteins (G proteins), abolishes all chemoattractant-induced responses, including Ca2+ mobilization, IP3 and DAG production, enzyme secretion, superoxide production and chemotaxis. Direct evidence for chemoattractant receptor: G protein coupling was obtained using PMN membrane preparations which contain a Ca2+-sensitive phospholipase C. Hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides at resting intracellular Ca2+ levels (100 nm) was only observed when the membranes were stimulated with the chemoattractant N-formyl-methyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe) in the presence of GTP. Myeloid cells contain two distinct pertussis toxin substrates of similar molecular weight (40 and 41 kD). The 41 kD substrate resembles Gi, whereas a 40 kD substrate is physically associated with a partially purified fMet-Leu-Phe receptor preparation and may therefore represent a novel G protein involved in chemoattractant-stimulated responses. Metabolism of 1,4,5-IP3 to inositol proceeds via two distinct pathways in PMNs: (1) degradation to 1,4-IP2 and 4-IP1 or (2) conversion to 1,3,4,5-IP4, 1,3,4-IP3, 3,4-IP2 and 3-IP1. Initial formation (0-30 s) of 1,4,5-IP3 and DAG occurs at ambient intracellular Ca2+ levels, whereas formation of 1,3,4-IP3 and a second sustained phase of DAG production (30 s-10 min) require elevated cytosolic Ca2+ influx. The later peak of DAG, which is not derived from phosphoinositides, appears to be required for stimulation of respiratory burst activity. Products formed during activation can feed back to attenuate chemoattractant receptor-mediated stimulation of phospholipase C by uncoupling receptor-G protein-phospholipase C interaction.
Dillon, SB; Verghese, MW; Snyderman, R
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