Potassium and calcium concentrations in interstitial fluid of hippocampal formation during paroxysmal responses.
The concentration of potassium ([K+]o) and of calcium ([Ca2+]o) in interstitial fluid of the hippocampal formation of rats anesthetized with urethan was recorded with double-barreled ion-selective microelectrodes. The ipsilateral angular bundle was stimulated with trains of repetitive pulses. [K+]o increased during angular bundle stimulation in both dendritic and cell body layers of the fascia dentata. When stimulation was frequent and intense enough to provoke intercurrent paroxysmal discharge (IPaD), [K+]o in the granule cell body layer rose much above the level it attained during previous, nonparoxysmal activation. No similar excess increase of [K+]o related to paroxysmal firing was observed in the dendritic layer. It is concluded that tonic paroxysmal discharge of the granule cells is associated with an outflow of K ions from the cell somata, but not the dendrites. Extracellular sustained potential (SP) shifts and responses of [K+]o associated with paroxysmal firing showed no consistent correlation in fascia dentata. It is concluded that paroxysmal SP shifts in fascia dentata (unlike in spinal cord and cerebral neocortex) are dominated by the extracellular currents generated by granule cells, not by neuroglia. In the postparoxysmal phase, however, a small residual SP shift was observed in both soma and dendrite layers, which had characteristics compatible with its being generated by glial cells. Responses of [Ca2+]o varied from rat to rat. During nonparoxysmal excitation [Ca2+]o increased, decreased, or remained unchanged. During paroxysmal firing [Ca2+]o always decreased in the granule cell body layer, but the magnitude of the response varied greatly. In the dendritic layer a similar but smaller decrease was observed in some but not all cases. Probable reasons for the unpredictability of the responses of [Ca2+]o are discussed. The responses of [Ca2+]o recorded in fascia dentata of urethan-anesthetized rats that have previously been kindled were not detectably different from those of control animals. Leão's spreading depression (LD) was associated with large increase of [K+]o, decrease of [Ca2+ )o, and intense negative SP shift in both dendritic and cell body layers of fascia dentata, as well as in CA1 zone of hippocampus. It is concluded that LD in hippocampal formation is associated with more widespread depolarization of pyramidal and granule cells than in cerebral neocortex and cerebellar cortex where changes of [K+]o are limited to the more superficial layers.
Somjen, GG; Giacchino, JL
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