Regulation of the 28 kDa heat shock protein by retinoic acid during differentiation of human leukemic HL-60 cells
Dysregulation of hematopoietic cellular differentiation contributes to leukemogenesis. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about how cell differentiation is regulated. Considering that heat shock proteins (hsp) and specifically the small hsps have been increasingly linked to growth regulation, we sought to determine whether the mammalian small hsp (hsp28) is a growth-regulatory candidate during hematopoietic cell differentiation. Because of its effects on cell growth and differentiation and its increasing clinical use as a differentiating agent, we examined the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on hsp28 during differentiation of the human leukemic HL-60 cell line. Although hsp28 was constitutively expressed at low levels in untreated HL-60 cells, steady state hsp28 protein increased transiently, concomitant with the onset of G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, hsp28 phosphorylation transiently increased within one hour following treatment with RA. Interestingly, in contrast to other differentiating agents the induction of hsp28 by RA was post-transcriptionally mediated with hsp28 protein and mRNA being discordantly regulated. These observations underscore the complex regulation of hsp28 by RA during granulocytic differentiation of human leukemic cells and indicate hsp28 as an intermediary in the pathway through which retinoids exert their growth and differentiative effects.
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)