Anti-B4-blocked ricin: a phase I trial of 7-day continuous infusion in patients with B-cell neoplasms.
PURPOSE: This phase I trial was undertaken to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of the B-cell-restricted immunotoxin anti-B4-blocked ricin (anti-B4-bR) when it is administered by 7-day continuous infusion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with relapsed and refractory B-cell neoplasms (26 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [NHL], four chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL], four acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) received 7-day continuous infusion anti-B4-bR. Successive cohorts of at least three patients were treated at doses of 10 to 70 micrograms/kg/d for 7 days with the dose increased by 10 micrograms/kg/d for each cohort. The initial three cohorts of patients (10, 20, and 30 micrograms/kg/d x 7 days) also received a bolus infusion of 20 micrograms/kg before beginning the continuous infusion. RESULTS: The MTD was reached at 50 micrograms/kg/d x 7 days. The DLTs were National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC) grade IV reversible increases in AST and ALT, and grade IV decreases in platelet counts. Adverse reactions included fevers, nausea, headaches, myalgias, hypoalbuminemia, dyspnea, edema, and capillary leak syndrome. Potentially therapeutic serum levels of anti-B4-bR could be sustained for 4 days in patients treated at the MTD. Two complete responses (CRs), three partial responses (PRs), and 11 transient responses (TRs) were observed. CONCLUSION: Anti-B4-bR can be administered safely by 7-day continuous infusion with tolerable, reversible toxicities to patients with relapsed B-cell neoplasms. Although occasional responses were seen, future trials will use anti-B4-bR in patients with lower tumor burdens to circumvent the obstacle of immunotoxin delivery to bulk disease.
Grossbard, ML; Lambert, JM; Goldmacher, VS; Spector, NL; Kinsella, J; Eliseo, L; Coral, F; Taylor, JA; Blättler, WA; Epstein, CL
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