Nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.


Journal Article (Review)

The recognition and treatment of nonmotor symptoms are increasingly emphasized in the care of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. This manuscript will review signs and symptoms localized, generally, to the cortex, basal ganglia, brainstem, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system. Cortical manifestations include dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and psychosis. Apathy, restlessness (akathisia), and impulse control disorders will be linked as basal ganglia symptoms. Symptoms attributed to the brainstem comprise depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. Peripheral nervous system disturbances may lead to orthostatic hypotension, constipation, pain, and sensory disturbances.

Full Text

Cited Authors

  • Stacy, M

Published Date

  • January 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 121 Suppl 2 /

Start / End Page

  • 9 - 17

PubMed ID

  • 22035025

Pubmed Central ID

  • 22035025

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1563-5279

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0020-7454

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3109/00207454.2011.620196


  • eng