Clinical features of patients with blepharospasm: a report of 240 patients.


Journal Article

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:To characterize patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) by diagnosis, environmental risk factors, and family history. METHODS:Two hundred and forty patients with BEB were evaluated through a clinical examination and questionnaire. The questionnaire reviewed personal medical history, demographic factors, risk factors for the development of blepharospasm and family history of dystonia and other neurological conditions. RESULTS:Benign essential blepharospasm was more commonly found in women (2.8:1) and 93% of the patients were Caucasian. Fifty percent had pure BEB, 31% had BEB/Meige's syndrome, and 4% had BEB and eyelid opening apraxia (+/- Meige's syndrome). A minority of patients reported preceding photophobia (25%) or other eye conditions (22%). The majority were non-smokers, had no exposure to anti-emetic or antipsychotic agents, had a normal birth history, and had no history of head trauma. Seventy-two percent did report a stressful event immediately prior to the development of symptoms. Treatments reported included botulinum toxin (BoNT), oral medications, surgical procedures, and acupuncture. Thirty-two percent of patients reported a family history of focal dystonia, and BEB was the most commonly reported. CONCLUSION:This study confirms previous reports of usual age, sex, caffeine and tobacco use, and family history in patients with blepharospasm. New findings include a report on occupation, lower reports of preceding eye conditions and photophobia, and higher reported stressful events. Further, this study shows a change in treatment with an increase in BoNT use and decrease in surgical procedures.

Full Text

Cited Authors

  • Peckham, EL; Lopez, G; Shamim, EA; Richardson, SP; Sanku, S; Malkani, R; Stacy, M; Mahant, P; Crawley, A; Singleton, A; Hallett, M

Published Date

  • March 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 18 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 382 - 386

PubMed ID

  • 20649903

Pubmed Central ID

  • 20649903

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1468-1331

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1351-5101

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03161.x


  • eng