Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.


Journal Article (Review)

Parkinson's disease is a hypokinetic movement disorder with cardinal motor features of bradykinesia, resting tremor and rigidity. However, non-motor symptoms, such as cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, autonomic and sensory disturbances are gaining increasing attention. These non-motor symptoms may be intrinsic to the disease pathology or may be results of treatment with dopaminergic agents. Given that most, if not all, patients with Parkinson's disease will experience non-motor symptoms, it is important to be sensitive to these phenomena, especially since some non-motor signs may precede motor impairment. Treatment may include interventions independent of traditional, dopaminergic anti-Parkinson therapy or may be tailored to increase or reduce dopamine responsiveness of the symptom.

Full Text

Cited Authors

  • Park, A; Stacy, M

Published Date

  • August 2009

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 256 Suppl 3 /

Start / End Page

  • 293 - 298

PubMed ID

  • 19711119

Pubmed Central ID

  • 19711119

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1432-1459

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0340-5354

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/s00415-009-5240-1


  • eng