Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor dust standard reference materials.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been measured for the first time in three different indoor dust Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Two of these, SRM 2583 (Trace Elements in Indoor Dust) and SRM 2584 (Trace Elements in Indoor Dust), have been certified previously for lead and other inorganic constituents. A third, SRM 2585 (Organics in Indoor Dust), is a new indoor dust reference material prepared by NIST which will be certified for various organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) in 2005 including certified concentrations for 16 individual PBDE congeners and reference values for an additional three PBDE congeners. Dust SRMs were analyzed for 30 PBDE congeners using high-resolution gas chromatography combined with low-resolution mass spectrometry operated in both negative chemical ionization (GC/ECNI-MS) and electron impact ionization (GC/EI-MS) modes. Sensitivity was an order of magnitude higher using GC/ECNI-MS relative to GC/EI-MS. These SRMs have been characterized and compared to the three PBDE commercial products (pentaBDE, octaBDE and decaBDE). PentaBDE and DecaBDE were present in all three SRMs and were the dominant commercial products, making up approximately 33% and 58%, respectively. Recent studies suggest that house dust may be a leading source of human exposure to PBDEs. These SRMs are the first reference materials with certified concentrations for PBDEs, which will aid in validating future measurements of PBDEs in house dust and other similar matrices.
Stapleton, HM; Harner, T; Shoeib, M; Keller, JM; Schantz, MM; Leigh, SD; Wise, SA
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