Clinically significant depressive symptoms and associated factors in community elderly subjects from Sao Paulo, Brazil.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS) in a community sample of Brazilian elderly and to assess their relationship with sociodemographic factors, cognitive and functional impairment (CFI), and clinical diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of a community-based sample of elderly subjects. SETTING: City of Sao Paulo, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,563 elderly subjects aged 60 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: A 10-item scale for screening of depressive symptoms in elderly people (D-10), the Mini Mental State Examination, the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, the Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale, and a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire. RESULTS: The frequency of CSDS was 13.0%. Univariate analysis identified independent factors associated with these symptoms in our sample. Logistic regression analysis indicated that being female, brown skinned, previously depressed, having CFI, using psychotropics, and not practicing physical exercise were related to CSDS. On the other hand, being older, clinically sick, employed, or married were not associated with CSDS. CONCLUSIONS: : Consistent with previous reports, female gender, lack of physical activity, and CFI were significantly associated with higher frequencies of CSDS. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the occurrence of depression and possible modifiable factors in developing countries such as Brazil.
Barcelos-Ferreira, R; Pinto, JA; Nakano, EY; Steffens, DC; Litvoc, J; Bottino, CMC
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