Risk factors for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: the Cache County Study.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the probability of individual neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients as a function of eight risk factors. METHODS: In the Cache County Study, we administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) to 328 dementia patients at baseline. Approximately 18 months later, we re-administered the NPI to 184 participants available for follow-up. Generalized estimating equation methods were used to model the probability of individual neuropsychiatric symptoms as a function of: gender, age, education, dementia type and severity, APOE status, time of observation, and general medical health. RESULTS: Women showed increased tendency toward anxiety, [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-3.76] and delusions (OR 2.15, CI 1.22-3.78), but older persons of both sexes showed less tendency toward anxiety. Dementia severity increased the tendency toward hallucinations and agitation (OR 2.42, CI 1.81-3.23) and decreased risk of depression. Positive APOE epsilon4 status increased the tendency toward aberrant motor behavior (OR 1.84, CI 1.05-3.22). Among dementia diagnoses, those with Alzheimer's disease showed decreased tendency toward agitation (OR 0.58, CI 0.35-0.95), depression (OR 0.56, CI 0.33-0.96) and disinhibition (OR 0.46, CI 0.24-0.88). Later time of observation increased risk of aberrant motor behavior and delusions, and more serious medical comorbidity increased risk of, agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and aberrant motor behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Gender, age, dementia severity, APOE epsilon4, dementia diagnosis, time of observation, and general medical health appear to influence the occurrence of individual neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Steinberg, M; Corcoran, C; Tschanz, JT; Huber, C; Welsh-Bohmer, K; Norton, MC; Zandi, P; Breitner, JC; Steffens, DC; Lyketsos, CG
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