Executive functioning early in abstinence from alcohol.
BACKGROUND: Executive dysfunction is among the cognitive impairments that may persist after abstinence in alcohol-dependent persons. The type(s) and extent of executive dysfunction early in abstinence have not been well characterized, but they may have important implications for the evolution of behavioral treatment strategies. METHODS: To determine which aspects of executive functioning were impaired in early abstinence, we administered memory and executive function tests to veterans who successively presented for treatment at an outpatient substance abuse clinic. We then compared the neuropsychological performance of these recovering alcoholics (n = 27) with that of age-matched primary care outpatients (n = 18). We also examined group differences in self-evaluation of cognitive decline and evaluated associations between drinking history and cognitive impairment in the index group. RESULTS: We found that the normal and alcohol-dependent groups differed on abstract reasoning, memory discrimination, and effectiveness on timed tasks. Patients in the alcohol-dependent sample were also more likely to perceive themselves as cognitively impaired. It is interesting to note that the duration of alcohol use did not relate to neuropsychological test performance, but recent quantity consumed and days of sobriety were associated with nonverbal abstract reasoning ability. CONCLUSIONS: Executive functions are impaired early in abstinence and should, therefore, be taken into account when early behavioral treatments are being developed.
Zinn, S; Stein, R; Swartzwelder, HS
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