Crosslinking of apolipoprotein E by products of lipid peroxidation.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and advancing aging are interacting ri sk factors in the expression of late onset and sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We tested the hypothesis that 2 products of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4 hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), covalently modify APOE and alter its metabolism. In vitro, both HNE and MDA crosslinked purified APOE3 and APOE4. HNE was a more potent crosslinker than MDA, and purified APO3 was more susceptible to crosslinking by HNE than was purified APOE4. In P19 neuroglial cultures, oxidative stress with lipid peroxidation led to increased intracellular accumulation of anti-HNE and anti-APOE immunoreactive proteins of approximately 50 kDa. Intercellular accumulation of the 50 kDa APOE-immunoreactive protein (APOE-50) was not prevented by cyclohexamide, suggesting formation by post-translational mechanisms. In CSF, a 50 kDa APOE-immunoreactive protein co-migrated with proteins most immunoreactive for HNE and MDA adducts, containing NaB3H4-reducible bonds. These proteins were in CSF from adult subjects (with or without dementia), and in AD patients homozygous for APOE3 or APOE4 alleles. These data suggest that HNE covalently crosslinks APOE in P19 neuroglial cultures to form a 50 kDa protein, and that similar modifications of APOE appear to occur in vivo.
Montine, TJ; Huang, DY; Valentine, WM; Amarnath, V; Saunders, A; Weisgraber, KH; Graham, DG; Strittmatter, WJ
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