Dimensions across measures of dispositional hostility, expressive style, and depression show some variation by race/ethnicity and gender in young adults
We examined group differences on scale scores and principal components across hostility, assertiveness, and depression measures in 738 young adults (ages 18-30; 66% women; 39% White, 27% black, 25% Asian). on individual scales, men reported greater expressive hostility and cynicism, whereas women showed greater agreeableness and depression. Asians reported the least assertiveness and the greatest depression, whereas Blacks reported the least agreeableness and greatest negativism and verbal hostility. Across all measures, two expressive (antagonistic; assertive) and 2 experiential (cynical-depressive; brooding) hostility components were observed for most groups, with antagonism and assertion less discernable for whites, and Asians evidencing a distinct depression/guilt component. A 3-component model revealed antagonistic, brooding-cynical, and depressive components, with anger-in and (low) assertiveness both loading with depression in all groups but whites. The variable associations among assertiveness, depression, and hostility, and the potentially adaptive modes of anger expression observed, suggest important factors in conceptualizing and measuring hostility for research and clinical applications.
Maier, KJ; Coble, LA; Neumann, SA; Ciccey, PP; Suarez, EC; Waldstein, SR
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