Sex differences in the relation of depressive symptoms, hostility, and anger expression to indices of glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults.
This study examined the relation of depressive symptomatology, hostility, and anger expression to indices of glucose metabolism and tested whether gender moderates these associations in a sample of 135 healthy, nondiabetic adults (75 men, 60 women). The severity of depressive symptoms, hostility, and anger expression was positively associated with estimated insulin resistance (IR) and insulin in women but not in men. Anger expression was positively associated with glucose in women only. A summary score of depressive symptoms, hostility, and anger expression was positively associated with estimated IR, insulin, and glucose in women but not in men. Hence, in women, IR and elevated levels of fasting insulin and glucose may be one pathophysiological mechanism mediating the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes associated with these psychological attributes.
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