High-dose cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with lymphoid malignancies who have received dose-limiting radiation therapy.
PURPOSE: To evaluate high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) in patients with lymphoid malignancy who had received prior radiation therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; n = 23), Hodgkin's disease (HD, n = 32), or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 2) with a history of previous radiation therapy were treated with cyclophosphamide (Cy; 7.2 g/m2), carmustine (300 mg/m2 or 600 mg/m2), and etoposide (2,400 mg/m2) (CBV) followed by ABMT. RESULTS: The projected 2-year probabilities of survival, event-free survival (EFS), and relapse were .31, .24, and .76, respectively. For patients with intermediate- and high-grade lymphoma and HD the probabilities were .27, .10, and .14 for EFS and .57, .90, and .77 for relapse. The probability of nonrelapse mortality in the first 100 days post-ABMT was 33%. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) was observed in no patients who received carmustine 300 mg/m2 and 23% of patients who received carmustine 600 mg/m2 (P = .05). Eight-three percent of patients who received mediastinal radiation therapy less than 3 months before transplant developed IPS, compared with 13% who received radiation therapy more than 3 months before transplant (P = .001). CONCLUSION: ABMT following high-dose CBV resulted in long-term disease-free survival in 25% of patients with lymphoid malignancies who had previously received dose-limiting radiation therapy. Fatal IPS and a high relapse rate were major factors limiting successful outcome following ABMT. The morbidity and mortality rates associated with the administration of carmustine 600 mg/m2 were prohibitively high, especially in patients who received mediastinal radiation immediately before ABMT, and were not associated with a decrease in post-ABMT relapse.
Weaver, CH; Appelbaum, FR; Petersen, FB; Clift, R; Singer, J; Press, O; Bensinger, W; Bianco, J; Martin, P; Anasetti, C
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