Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for 93 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.
We treated 93 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome using cyclophosphamide and either total body irradiation (n = 88) or busulfan (n = 5) followed by marrow transplantation. Sixty-five marrow donors were genotypically HLA-identical siblings and 28 were other family members or unrelated donors. Before transplantation all patients had either severe neutropenia or thrombocytopenia or had greater than 5% blasts in the marrow or peripheral blood. The probabilities of disease-free survival, relapse, and non-relapse mortality at 4 years were 41%, 28%, and 43%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age and shorter disease duration were significantly associated with improved disease-free survival and decreased non-relapse mortality. Relapse was seen only in patients with excess blasts at the time of transplantation (51% at 4 years). Patients younger than age 40 and without excess blasts had a 4-year disease-free survival of 62%. This study confirms that allogeneic marrow transplantation can cure some patients with myelodysplasia. Because of the favorable outcome in younger patients without excess blasts, we recommend that transplantation be considered early for patients younger than age 40, before disease progression or development of life-threatening cytopenias. For older patients and those with excess blasts, changes in the transplant procedure will be necessary to improve outcome.
Anderson, JE; Appelbaum, FR; Fisher, LD; Schoch, G; Shulman, H; Anasetti, C; Bensinger, WI; Bryant, E; Buckner, CD; Doney, K
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