CCK and other peptides modulate hypothalamic norepinephrine release in the rat: dependence on hunger or satiety.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the functional relationship between putative satiety peptides and endogenous norepinephrine (NE) activity in the hypothalamus. Permanent guide cannulae for push-pull perfusion were implanted stereotaxically in Sprague-Dawley rats so as to rest above the medial or lateral hypothalamus (LH). Post-operatively, the animals were either satiated with food and water, both available ad lib, or fasted for 18-22 hr prior to an experiment. To perfuse a site in the LH, paraventricular (PVN) or ventromedial nucleus (VMN), a concentric 29-23 ga push-pull cannula system was lowered to a pre-determined site, in most cases after catecholamine stores had been pre-labeled with [3H]-NE. During control tests, an artificial CSF was perfused at a rate of 20-25 microliter/min for 5-8 min with a 5 min interval between each sample. The addition of cholecystokinin (CCK) in a concentration of 2.0-6.0 ng/microliter to the CSF perfused in PVN or VMN of the satiated rat enhanced the efflux of NE; however, in the fasted animal CCK often suppressed the catecholamine's release. Perfused in the LH, CCK exerted opposite effects, typically augmenting NE output when the rat was fasted but not affecting the amine's activity during the sated condition. Proglumide (1.2 micrograms/microliter) attenuated CCK's effect in releasing NE when the antagonist was perfused in the PVN of the satiated rat. Similar experiments in which neurotensin (NT) was perfused in the LH, PVN and VMN revealed virtually the same inverse effects on NE release in the fasted and satiated rat, which again were anatomically specific. Finally, insulin and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) exerted similar state-dependent effects on the release of NE within LH and PVN. Overall, the results suggest that CCK or other neuroactive peptide could serve as a "neuromodulator" of the pre-synaptic release of NE within classical hypothalamic structures which are thought to underlie both hunger and satiety. The state-dependent nature of the peptides' activity on the noradrenergic feeding mechanism implies that these substances constitute a pivotal portion of the profile of factors which impinge functionally upon the hypothalamic neurons responsible for the feeding response and its cessation.
Myers, RD; Swartzwelder, HS; Peinado, JM; Lee, TF; Hepler, JR; Denbow, DM; Ferrer, JM
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