Gold diffusion in silicon during gettering by an aluminum layer
Previous modeling of Al gettering of Au in Si indicated that, for an Al gettering layer placed on one surface of a Si wafer, Au will be gettered from both surface regions of the wafer to progressively greater depths with time. This is because, in Si, Au is a substitutional-interstitial (Aus-Aui) species with its diffusion governed by the kick-out mechanism which is mediated by Si self-interstitials (I). During gettering by the Al-Si liquid at one wafer surface, Aus atoms change over to Aui atoms to rapidly migrate out of Si into the liquid. The changeover process consumes I. At the two water surface regions, the consumed I will be quickly replenished, while in the wafer interior an I undersaturation develops which hinders the Aus-Aui changeover and hence the gettering process. Experimental evidences which confirm the predictions have been obtained. Au was indiffused into a FZ Si wafer at 950°C for 16 hr. After removing the Au source and etching, samples from the indiffused wafer were annealed at 1000°C without or with an Al layer on one surface. For samples without Al, there is no change in the net Au content, while the U-shaped indiffused profile becomes flatter. For samples with an Al layer, both wafer surface region Au concentrations were significantly decreased in 30 min while the wafer interior Au concentrations decreased only after annealing for longer times. The model predictions, the experimental results, and the implications on Si self-diffusion parameters will be discussed.
Joshi, SM; Gosele, UM; Tan, TY
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