Predictors of early quality-of-life improvement after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.
BACKGROUND: Quality of life is getting more attention in the medical literature. Treatment outcomes are now gauged by their effect on quality of life (QOL), along with their direct effect on diseases they are targeting. Similarly, in obesity, consensus has been reached on the importance of QOL as an independent outcome measure for obesity surgery along with weight loss and comorbidity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of patient demographics and comorbidities on short-term QOL improvement after laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGB) surgery. METHODS: The change in QOL after LGB was assessed in 171 patients (147 women, 24 men; mean age, 43.1 y) using the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify patients' demographics and comorbidities predictive of major QOL improvement. RESULTS: Body mass index decreased significantly at 3 months (48.5 +/- 5.8 to 38.4 +/- 5.4 kg/m2; P < .001) with excess weight loss of 37.4% +/- 9.2%. The SF-36 follow-up evaluation showed significant improvement (44.2 +/- 15.7 to 78.6 +/- 15.5; P < .001). A significant inverse correlation was found between QOL (before and after bypass) and the number of comorbidities (r = .29, P = .001; R = .22, P = .005; respectively), but the magnitude of QOL change did not correlate with the number of comorbidities (P = .5). When the entire cohort of patients was dichotomized according to their magnitude of change in SF-36 scores, the univariate analysis showed that the group of patients with no improvement or minor improvement in their SF-36 was characterized by a higher percentage of male sex and a lower prevalence of diabetes. These 2 preoperative factors remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. Preoperative diagnosis of type 2 diabetes increased the likelihood of major improvement in QOL after LGB by 6.2 times, whereas being a woman increased this likelihood by 16.1 times. CONCLUSIONS: Significant weight loss was achieved as early as 3 months after LGB, causing substantial improvement in QOL in more than 95% of patients. Women with type 2 diabetes have the highest odds to achieve a major QOL improvement after LGB and therefore they should represent the ideal target population for surgical weight loss programs.
Torquati, A; Lutfi, RE; Richards, WO
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