Endoscopic treatment modalities for gastroesophageal reflux disease.
A debate has been going for decades between surgeons and gastroenterologists about the treatment of choice for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) has been historically far from the reach of gastroenterologists, who adopted the symptomatic treatment as their approach to reflux disease through reduction of gastric acid. As for surgeons, reaching the LES was only possible by invading the thoracic or abdominal cavity. Although their approach was later refined to become "minimally" invasive, it was still deemed too invasive by others to allow it to be the "gold standard." Simple logic should lead one to think about the "natural route" as the easiest way to reach the LES. This concept has opened the door for the new era of GERD treatment through "endoscopic modality." Seven different techniques are currently being used to treat patients with GERD. We review the mechanism of action, potential side effects, efficacy, durability, and results from the most recent or largest experience of each. This review shows that endoscopic treatment has definitely earned its place as a viable option for GERD treatment in selected patients. With the available data from clinical trials, it is not possible to determine the best modality available, and the endoscopic treatment of choice is to be determined with further studies.
Lutfi, RE; Torquati, A; Richards, WO
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