3-D phantom and in vivo cardiac speckle tracking using a matrix array and raw echo data.
Cardiac motion has been tracked using various methods, which vary in their invasiveness and dimensionality. One such noninvasive modality for cardiac motion tracking is ultrasound. Three-dimensional ultrasound motion tracking has been demonstrated using detected data at low volume rates. However, the effects of volume rate, kernel size, and data type (raw and detected) have not been sufficiently explored. First comparisons are made within the stated variables for 3-D speckle tracking. Volumetric data were obtained in a raw, baseband format using a matrix array attached to a high parallel receive beam count scanner. The scanner was used to acquire phantom and human in vivo cardiac volumetric data at 1000-Hz volume rates. Motion was tracked using phase-sensitive normalized cross-correlation. Subsample estimation in the lateral and elevational dimensions used the grid-slopes algorithm. The effects of frame rate, kernel size, and data type on 3-D tracking are shown. In general, the results show improvement of motion estimates at volume rates up to 200 Hz, above which they become stable. However, peak and pixel hopping continue to decrease at volume rates higher than 200 Hz. The tracking method and data show, qualitatively, good temporal and spatial stability (for independent kernels) at high volume rates.
Byram, B; Holley, G; Giannantonio, D; Trahey, G
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