Novel acoustic radiation force impulse imaging methods for visualization of rapidly moving tissue.
Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has been demonstrated to be capable of visualizing changes in local myocardial stiffness through a normal cardiac cycle. As a beating heart involves rapidly-moving tissue with cyclically-varying myocardial stiffness, it is desirable to form images with high frame rates and minimize susceptibility to motion artifacts. Three novel ARFI imaging methods, pre-excitation displacement estimation, parallel-transmit excitation and parallel-transmit tracking, were implemented. Along with parallel-receive, ECG-gating and multiplexed imaging, these new techniques were used to form high-quality, high-resolution epicardial ARFI images. Three-line M-mode, extended ECG-gated three-line M-mode and ECG-gated two-dimensional ARFI imaging sequences were developed to address specific challenges related to cardiac imaging. In vivo epicardial ARFI images of an ovine heart were formed using these sequences and the quality and utility of the resultant ARFI-induced displacement curves were evaluated. The ARFI-induced displacement curves demonstrate the potential for ARFI imaging to provide new and unique information into myocardial stiffness with high temporal and spatial resolution.
Hsu, SJ; Bouchard, RR; Dumont, DM; Ong, CW; Wolf, PD; Trahey, GE
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