On the evolution of genetic incompatibility systems. V. Origin of sporophytic self-incompatibility in response to overdominance in viability.
Conditions for the origin of partial sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI) are obtained from two quantitative models, which differ with respect to the determination of offspring viability. Offspring viability depends solely on the source (self or nonself) of the fertilizing pollen in the first model, which describes changes only at a primitive S-locus itself. Two loci evolve in the second model: overdominant viability selection maintains an arbitrary number of alleles at one locus, with SSI under the control of a separate locus. In both cases, the origin of SSI requires that the relative change in the numbers of offspring derived by the two reproductive modes compensate for the twofold cost of outcrossing. In the first model studied, the viability of inbred offspring fully determines the relative change in the numbers of inbred and outbred offspring produced. In the second model, the relative change in offspring numbers depends in addition on associations between the S-locus and the viability locus. Because these two-locus associations are comparable in magnitude to the differences between the viabilities of inbred and outbred offspring, SSI can arise under less restrictive conditions than expected from the one-locus model. Greater allelic multiplicity at the viability locus facilitates the origin of SSI by reducing the relative viability of inbred offspring. Tight linkage between the S-locus and the viability locus and high rates of receipt of self-pollen promote the generation and maintenance of associations between the S-locus and the viability locus. In populations in which more than two viability alleles are maintained, the active S-allele can invade even in the absence of linkage with the viability locus. The present study establishes that incompatibility systems can arise in response to identity disequilibrium between a modifier of incompatibility and a locus subject to overdominant viability selection; in particular, compensation for the twofold cost of outcrossing does not require preexisting gametic level disequilibria.
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