Metabolic stress opens K+ channels in hepatoma cells through a Ca2+- and protein kinase calpha-dependent mechanism.
These studies of a model liver cell line evaluate the mechanisms responsible for regulated release of K+ ions during metabolic stress. Metabolic inhibition of HTC hepatoma cells by exposure to 2, 4-dinitrophenol (50 microM) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (10 mM) stimulated outward currents carried by K+ of 974 +/- 75 pA at 0 mV (n = 20, p < 0.001). Currents were inhibited by chelation of intracellular Ca2+ or exposure to apamin (50 nM), an inhibitor of SKCa channels. In cell-attached recordings from intact cells, removal of metabolic substrates (25/28 cells) or exposure to metabolic inhibitors (32/40 cells) opened K+-selective channels with a conductance of 6.5 +/- 0. 2 pS. Channels had an open probability of 0.31 +/- 0.08 and opened in bursts averaging 3.55 +/- 0.27 ms in duration (n = 6). Metabolic stress was associated with rapid translocation of the alpha isoform of protein kinase C (PKCalpha) from cytosol to membrane; and down-regulation of PKCalpha by phorbol esters or exposure to the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (10 microM) each inhibited currents. Moreover, intracellular perfusion with purified PKCalpha activated currents in a Ca2+- and concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that metabolic stress leads to opening of apamin-sensitive SKCa channels in hepatoma cells through a Ca2+- and PKC-dependent mechanism and suggest that PKCalpha may be selectively involved in the response. This mechanism functionally couples the metabolic state of cells to membrane K+ permeability and represents a potential target for modification of liver injury associated with ischemia and preservation.
Wang, Y; Sostman, A; Roman, R; Stribling, S; Vigna, S; Hannun, Y; Raymond, J; Fitz, JG
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