Immunocytochemical localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the digestive tracts of a holostean and a teleostean fish
1. The localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the gastrointestinal tracts of a holostean fish, the bowfin (Amia calva) and a teleostean fish, the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) was determined using immunocytochemistry. 2. In the bowfin, VIP immunoreactivity was observed in both gut nerves and gastrointestinal endocrine cells. In the bluegill, only gut nerves exhibited VIP-like immunoreactivity. 3. The presence of VIP endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa of bowfin appears to be unique among vertebrates. VIP-containing endocrine cells of the open type were seen in cardiac, oxyntic, and antral gastric mucosa. There appeared to be morphological differences in VIP endocrine cell shapes in anterior versus posterior stomach regions. No VIP endocrine cells were observed in bowfin intestine. 4. We conclude that VIP may have an endocrine/paracrine regulatory role in the bowfin stomach and may be strictly a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the bowfin gut. There are many species differences in the distribution of VIP-like peptides between neurons and endocrine cells in the guts of lower vertebrates, complicating analysis of the neural versus endocrine evolutionary origin of gut VIP. © 1990.
Rajjo, IM; Vigna, SR; Crim, JW
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