Phylogenetic Relationships in the Mushroom Genus Coprinus and Dark-Spored Allies Based on Sequence Data from the Nuclear Gene Coding for the Large Ribosomal Subunit RNA: Divergent Domains, Outgroups, and Monophyly
Phylogenetic relationships were investigated in the mushroom genus Coprinus based on sequence data from the nuclear encoded large-subunit rDNA gene. Forty-seven species of Coprinus and 19 additional species from the families Coprinaceae, Strophariaceae, Bolbitiaceae, Agaricaceae, Podaxaceae, and Montagneaceae were studied. A total of 1360 sites was sequenced across seven divergent domains and intervening sequences. A total of 302 phylogenetically informative characters was found. Ninety-eight percent of the average divergence between taxa was located within the divergent domains, with domains D2 and D8 being most divergent and domains D7 and D10 the least divergent. An empirical test of phylogenetic signal among divergent domains also showed that domains D2 and D3 had the lowest levels of homoplasy. Two equally most parsimonious trees were resolved using Wagner parsimony. A character-state weighted analysis produced 12 equally most parsimonious trees similar to those generated by Wagner parsimony. Phylogenetic analyses employing topological constraints suggest that none of the major taxonomic systems proposed for subgeneric classification is able to completely reflect phylogenetic relationships in Coprinus. A strict consensus integration of the two Wagner trees demonstrates the problematic nature of choosing outgroups within dark-spored mushrooms. The genus Coprinus is found to be polyphyletic and is separated into three distinct clades. Most Coprinus taxa belong to the first two clades, which together form a larger monophyletic group with Lacrymaria and Psathyrella in basal positions. A third clade contains members of Coprinus section Comati as well as the genus Leucocoprinus, Podaxis pistillaris, Montagnea arenaria, and Agaricus pocillator. This third clade is separated from the other species of Coprinus by members of the families Strophariaceae and Bolbitiaceae and the genus Panaeolus. © 1999 Academic Press.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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