Hypothermic treatment restores glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in ischemic brain.
Mild hypothermia is a well-known method of reducing brain damage caused by traumatic, hypoxic, and ischemic injury. To elucidate the neuroprotective mechanism induced by hypothermic treatment, we compared gene expression profiles in the hippocampus of gerbils rendered ischemic for 15 min and then reperfused for 3 h under conditions of normothermia (37+/-0.5 degrees C) or hypothermic treatment (34+/-0.5 degrees C). Using the differential display method, we observed significantly reduced expression of the 78 kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78), in ischemic gerbil hippocampus that underwent normothermic reperfusion, but normal GRP78 expression in animals that underwent hypothermic reperfusion. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis showed GRP78 mRNA expression was reduced in the CA1 region of the hippocampus under normothermic conditions, but was not reduced under hypothermic conditions. Western blot analysis also showed the levels of immunoreactive GRP78 protein decreased in neurons of the hippocampal CA-1 region under normothermia, but not under hypothermic treatments. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of GRP78 protects rat hippocampal neurons from cell death and inhibits the rise in intracellular calcium concentration normally induced by hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that reduction in GRP78 expression contributes to cell damage in the ischemic brain and that hypothermia-mediated restoration of GRP78 expression is one mechanism that enhances neuronal survival.
Aoki, M; Tamatani, M; Taniguchi, M; Yamaguchi, A; Bando, Y; Kasai, K; Miyoshi, Y; Nakamura, Y; Vitek, MP; Tohyama, M; Tanaka, H; Sugimoto, H
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