Phase II jaw movements and masseter muscle activity during chewing in Papio anubis.
It was proposed that the power stroke in primates has two distinct periods of occlusal contact, each with a characteristic motion of the mandibular molars relative to the maxillary molars. The two movements are called phase I and phase II, and they occur sequentially in that order (Kay and Hiiemae  Am J. Phys. Anthropol. 40:227-256, Kay and Hiiemae  Prosimian Biology, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, p. 501-530). Phase I movement is said to be associated with shearing along a series of crests, producing planar phase I facets and crushing on surfaces on the basins of the molars. Phase I terminates in centric occlusion. Phase II movement is said to be associated with grinding along the same surfaces that were used for crushing at the termination of phase I. Hylander et al. ( Am J. Phys. Anthropol. 72:287-312; see also Hiiemae  Food Acquisition and Processing, London: Academic Press, p. 257-281; Hylander and Crompton  Am J. Phys. Anthropol. 52:239-251,  Arch. Oral. Biol. 31:841-848) analyzed data on macaques and suggested that phase II movement may not be nearly as significant for food breakdown as phase I movement simply because, based on the magnitude of mandibular bone strain patterns, adductor muscle and occlusal forces are likely negligible during movement out of centric occlusion. Our goal is to better understand the functional significance of phase II movement within the broader context of masticatory kinematics during the power stroke. We analyze vertical and transverse mandibular motion and relative activity of the masseter and temporalis muscles during phase I and II movements in Papio anubis. We test whether significant muscle activity and, by inference, occlusal force occurs during phase II movement. We find that during phase II movement, there is negligible force developed in the superficial and deep masseter and the anterior and posterior temporalis muscles. Furthermore, mandibular movements are small during phase II compared to phase I. These results suggest that grinding during phase II movement is of minimal importance for food breakdown, and that most food breakdown on phase II facets occurs primarily at the end of phase I movement (i.e., crushing during phase I movement). We note, however, that depending on the orientation of phase I facets, significant grinding also occurs along phase I facets during phase I.
Wall, CE; Vinyard, CJ; Johnson, KR; Williams, SH; Hylander, WL
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