Signal enhancement in CRAZED experiments.


Journal Article

Many of the promising applications of the CRAZED (COSY Revamped with Asymmetric Z-gradient Echo Detection) experiments are in biomedical and clinical technologies. In tissue, however, signal from the typical CRAZED experiment is largely limited by transverse relaxation. When relaxation is included, the maximum achievable signal from a prototypical CRAZED sequence, in the linear regime, is proportional to T(2)/tau(d). This means that for samples with a short T(2), as encountered in vivo, signals from intermolecular multiple-quantum coherences (iMQCs) reach very diminished signal intensities. While relaxation is generally regarded as a fundamental constraint, we show here that when T(2) is short but T(1) is long, as in tissue, there are simple sequence modifications that can increase signal beyond the T(2) limit. To better utilize the available signal intensity from iMQCs we propose a method to substitute part of the transverse magnetization with the longitudinally modulated magnetization. In this paper we show, with both simulations and experimental results, that in the presence of strong transverse relaxation the standard CRAZED scheme is not the optimal method for observing iMQCs, and can be improved upon with simple modifications.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Branca, RT; Galiana, G; Warren, WS

Published Date

  • July 2007

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 187 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 38 - 43

PubMed ID

  • 17448714

Pubmed Central ID

  • 17448714

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1096-0856

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1090-7807

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jmr.2007.02.017


  • eng