Time of day affects episodic memory in older adults.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

The neuropsychological test scores of 2030 cognitively normal older adults were examined to evaluate performance patterns as they related to time of day (TOD) at which testing was initiated. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association of TOD with scores on seven neuropsychological tests used in the clinical evaluation of dementia. Episodic memory performance was significantly related to TOD, while memory span and verbal fluency were not. Best performance occurred during early morning hours and late afternoon; worst performance occurred mid-day (i.e., noon). These findings may have implications for clinical assessment, the design of research on dementia, and the daily functioning of older adults.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Martini, B; Buffington, ALH; Welsh-Bohmer, KA; Brandt, J; ADAPT Research Group,

Published Date

  • March 2008

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 15 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 146 - 164

PubMed ID

  • 17851985

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1744-4128

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1080/13825580601186643


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States