Mechanisms of specificity in neuronal activity-regulated gene transcription.

Published

Journal Article (Review)

The brain is a highly adaptable organ that is capable of converting sensory information into changes in neuronal function. This plasticity allows behavior to be accommodated to the environment, providing an important evolutionary advantage. Neurons convert environmental stimuli into long-lasting changes in their physiology in part through the synaptic activity-regulated transcription of new gene products. Since the neurotransmitter-dependent regulation of Fos transcription was first discovered nearly 25 years ago, a wealth of studies have enriched our understanding of the molecular pathways that mediate activity-regulated changes in gene transcription. These findings show that a broad range of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators can be engaged by neuronal activity to sculpt complex programs of stimulus-regulated gene transcription. However, the shear scope of the transcriptional pathways engaged by neuronal activity raises the question of how specificity in the nature of the transcriptional response is achieved in order to encode physiologically relevant responses to divergent stimuli. Here we summarize the general paradigms by which neuronal activity regulates transcription while focusing on the molecular mechanisms that confer differential stimulus-, cell-type-, and developmental-specificity upon activity-regulated programs of neuronal gene transcription. In addition, we preview some of the new technologies that will advance our future understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of activity-regulated gene transcription in the brain.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Lyons, MR; West, AE

Published Date

  • August 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 94 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 259 - 295

PubMed ID

  • 21620929

Pubmed Central ID

  • 21620929

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-5118

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0301-0082

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2011.05.003

Language

  • eng