Palladium-catalyzed cyclization/carboalkoxylation of alkenyl indoles.
Reaction of 1-methyl-2-(4-pentenyl)indole with a catalytic amount of PdCl2(CH3CN)2 (5 mol %) and a stoichiometric amount of CuCl2 (3 equiv) in methanol under CO (1 atm) at room temperature for 30 min led to cyclization/carboalkoxylation to form the corresponding tetrahydrocarbazole in 83% isolated yield as a single regioisomer. Palladium-catalyzed cyclization/carboalkoxylation of 2-(4-pentenyl)indoles tolerated substitution along the alkenyl chain and at the internal and cis-terminal olefinic positions. Palladium-catalyzed cyclization/carboalkoxylation tolerated a range of alcohols and was effective for the cyclization of 2-(3-butenyl)indoles, 3-(3-butenyl)indoles, 3-(4-pentenyl)indoles, and 2-(5-hexenyl)indoles.
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