Ultrasonic dispersion of nanoparticles for environmental, health and safety assessment--issues and recommendations.
Studies designed to investigate the environmental or biological interactions of nanoscale materials frequently rely on the use of ultrasound (sonication) to prepare test suspensions. However, the inconsistent application of ultrasonic treatment across laboratories, and the lack of process standardization can lead to significant variability in suspension characteristics. At present, there is widespread recognition that sonication must be applied judiciously and reported in a consistent manner that is quantifiable and reproducible; current reporting practices generally lack these attributes. The objectives of the present work were to: (i) Survey potential sonication effects that can alter the physicochemical or biological properties of dispersed nanomaterials (within the context of toxicity testing) and discuss methods to mitigate these effects, (ii) propose a method for standardizing the measurement of sonication power, and (iii) offer a set of reporting guidelines to facilitate the reproducibility of studies involving engineered nanoparticle suspensions obtained via sonication.
Taurozzi, JS; Hackley, VA; Wiesner, MR
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