Heterogeneities in fullerene nanoparticle aggregates affecting reactivity, bioactivity, and transport.
Properties of nanomaterial suspensions are typically summarized by average values for the purposes of characterizing these materials and interpreting experimental results. We show in this work that the heterogeneity in aqueous suspensions of fullerene C(60) aggregates (nC(60)) must be taken into account for the purposes of predicting nanomaterial transport, exposure, and biological activity. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), microbial inactivation, and the mobility of the aggregates of the nC(60) in a silicate porous medium all increased as suspensions were fractionated to enrich with smaller aggregates by progressive membrane filtration. These size-dependent differences are attributed to an increasing degree of hydroxylation of nC(60) aggregates with decreasing size. As the quantity and influence of these more reactive fractions may increase with time, experiments evaluating fullerene transport and toxicity end points must take into account the evolution and heterogeneity of fullerene suspensions.
Chae, S-R; Badireddy, AR; Farner Budarz, J; Lin, S; Xiao, Y; Therezien, M; Wiesner, MR
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