Effects of oxygen on the metabolism of murine tumors using in vivo phosphorus-31 NMR.
The effect of 100% inspired oxygen on in vivo tumor metabolism was examined using phosphorus-31 (31P) NMR spectroscopy. Isotransplants of two murine tumor histologies, designated MCaIV (C3H mammary adenocarcinoma) and FSaII (C3H fibrosarcoma), were used in syngeneic mice. Tumor volumes ranged from 30 to 1,800 mm3. Both tumor histologies are known to have a high hypoxic cell fraction when tumor volumes exceed 250 mm3. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained at 145.587 MHz, and the signal was detected using a 1.4 cm diameter, single loop coil designed to localize the signal from only the tumor. Spectral parameters for optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) included a 60 degrees pulse and a 2-second recycle delay. Tumors were implanted in the hindfoot dorsum to assure that all detected mobile phosphates were of tumor origin. Phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate (PCr/Pi) ratios of large tumors (greater than 250 mm3) were reduced compared with small tumors (less than 250 mm3) of the same histology. The increased PCr/Pi response to 100% inspired oxygen was greater for large tumors and for tumors with lower baseline PCr/Pi ratios. When host animals were given 10% oxygen for respiration, there was an increase in Pi and a decrease in both PCr and ATP. The response to 10% oxygen was observed in both large and small tumors of both tumor histologies studied. Resting skeletal muscle exhibited no alteration in the NMR spectrum during either 100 or 10% oxygen breathing. We conclude that the fractional increase in PCr/Pi ratio that occurs after 100% oxygen breathing is a sensitive, noninvasive method of detecting tumor hypoxia.
Okunieff, P; McFarland, E; Rummeny, E; Willett, C; Hitzig, B; Neuringer, L; Suit, H
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