Effects of oxidized LDL on mononuclear phagocytes: inhibition of induction of four inflammatory cytokine gene RNAs, release of NO, and cytolysis of tumor cells.
A critical step in development of atherosclerosis is the interaction of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with mononuclear phagocytes. Oxidized LDL, as well as acetyl-LDL, is rapidly taken up into macrophages via a family of scavenger receptors. We report that macrophages treated with oxidized LDL have markedly lower levels of mRNA specific for the genes MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, and KC as measured by Northern blot analyses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. By contrast, acetyl-LDL does not inhibit these genes at the doses at which oxidized-LDL is effective. Similar effects are observed whether the LDL is oxidized in the presence of Cu2+ or of Fe2+. Such inhibition also occurs when maleylated bovine serum albumin (BSA), which also clears by one or more scavenger receptors on macrophages, is used as the stimulant. Fe2+ or Cu2+ oxidized LDL inhibits release of nitric oxide when triggered by LPS and direct cytolysis of tumor cells when triggered by maleylated BSA or LPS. Taken together, the data presented indicate that oxidized LDL inhibits induction of several important gene RNAs as well as functional markers that characterize the development of inflammatory and fully activated macrophages.
Thai, SF; Lewis, JG; Williams, RB; Johnson, SP; Adams, DO
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