Effects of monophasic and biphasic shocks on action potentials during ventricular fibrillation in dogs.
This study determined the response of action potentials during ventricular fibrillation (VF) to timed monophasic and biphasic shocks. A floating glass microelectrode was used to record intracellularly from the anterior right ventricle in 10 open-chest dogs. After 10 seconds of electrically induced VF, 5-millisecond monophasic and 2.5/2.5-millisecond biphasic shocks or 16-millisecond monophasic and 8/8-millisecond biphasic shocks were given via mesh electrodes on either side of the microelectrode. Monophasic and biphasic truncated exponential shocks of 5 V/cm were given with coupling intervals timed from the beginning of a VF action potential to the shock ranging from 50 to 70 milliseconds in 5-millisecond increments. Each coupling interval for each waveform was tested during a different VF episode. The interval between successive activations during VF was 86 +/- 15 milliseconds (mean +/- SD). The refractory period during VF was 61 +/- 5 milliseconds for 5-millisecond monophasic shocks and 66 +/- 6 milliseconds for 2.5/2.5-millisecond biphasic shocks (P < .05). At each coupling interval, action potential duration at 50% repolarization (APD50) was significantly prolonged by the shocks compared with the mean preshock APD50 (P < .05). ADP50 duration increased significantly with increases in the coupling interval (P < .05) for both monophasic and biphasic waveforms. For all coupling intervals together, APD50 prolongation as a percent of the mean preshock APD50 was 170 +/- 55%, 192 +/- 45%, 151 +/- 44%, and 175 +/- 45% for 5- and 16-millisecond monophasic and 2.5/2.5- and 8/8-millisecond biphasic waveforms, respectively. This APD50 prolongation was greater for monophasic than biphasic shocks and was greater for longer than shorter waveforms (P < .05). Thus, during VF, (1) the refractory period for 5-V/cm truncated exponential waveforms lasting 5 milliseconds is approximately 75% of the VF activation interval; (2) the refractory period is shorter for monophasic than for comparable biphasic waveforms; (3) both monophasic and biphasic 5-V/cm shock fields cause prolongation of action potential duration; (4) prolongation of action potential duration increases as the coupling interval increases; and (5) prolongation of action potential duration is greater for monophasic shocks and for longer shock waveforms.
Zhou, X; Wolf, PD; Rollins, DL; Afework, Y; Smith, WM; Ideker, RE
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