Automatic integration of the reaction path using diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods.
The diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta framework is shown to be a general form for constructing stable, efficient steepest descent reaction path integrators, of any order. With this framework tolerance driven, adaptive step-size methods can be constructed by embedding methods to obtain error estimates of each step without additional computational cost. There are many embedded and nonembedded, diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods available from the numerical analysis literature and these are reviewed for orders two, three, and four. New embedded methods are also developed which are tailored to the application of reaction path following. All integrators are summarized and compared for three systems: the Muller-Brown [Theor. Chem. Acta 53, 75 (1979)] potential and two gas phase chemical reactions. The results show that many of the methods are capable of integrating efficiently while reliably keeping the error bound within the desired tolerance. This allows the reaction path to be determined through automatic integration by only specifying the desired accuracy and transition state.
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