Cell cycle-dependent expression of thyroid hormone receptor-beta is a mechanism for variable hormone sensitivity.
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are ligand-regulatable transcription factors. Currently, little is known about the expression of TRs or other nuclear hormone receptors during the cell cycle. We thus developed a stable expression system to express green fluorescent protein-TRbeta in HeLa cells under tetracycline regulation, and studied TR expression during the cell cycle by laser scanning cytometry. Only approximately 9-15% of the nonsynchronized cell population expressed TR because the majority of cells were in G(1) phase and did not express detectable amounts of TR. However, when cells were synchronized in early S phase with hydroxyurea and then released, TR expression levels increased in a cell cycle-dependent manner and peaked to 30-40% cells expressing TR at late G(2)/M phase before declining to nonsynchronized levels. Moreover, we observed a direct correlation between transcriptional activity and TR expression during the cell cycle. Similar cell cycle-dependent findings also were observed for endogenous TR in rat pituitary GH(3) cells. Last, cycloheximide studies demonstrated that the increase in TR expression was primarily due to increased translation. These novel observations of cell cycle-dependent expression of TR suggest that differential hormone sensitivity can occur during the cell cycle and may contribute to cell cycle progression during normal development and oncogenesis.
Maruvada, P; Dmitrieva, NI; East-Palmer, J; Yen, PM
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)