Protein synthesis-dependent potentiation by thyroxine of antiviral activity of interferon-gamma.
We have studied the prenuclear signal transduction pathway by which thyroid hormone potentiates the antiviral activity of human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in HeLa cells, which are deficient in thyroid hormone receptor (TR). The action of thyroid hormone was compared with that of milrinone, which has structural homologies with thyroid hormone. L-Thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3), and milrinone enhanced the antiviral activity of IFN-gamma up to 100-fold, a potentiation blocked by cycloheximide. The 5'-deiodinase inhibitor 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil did not block the T4 effect. 3,3',5,5'-Tetraiodothyroacetic acid prevented the effect of T4 but not of milrinone. The effects of T4 and milrinone were blocked by inhibitors of protein kinases C (PKC) and A (PKA) and restored by PKC and PKA agonists; only the effect of T4 was blocked by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In separate models, milrinone was shown not to interact with nuclear TR-beta. T4 potentiation of the antiviral activity of IFN-gamma requires PKC, PKA, and tyrosine kinase activities but not traditional TR.
Lin, HY; Yen, PM; Davis, FB; Davis, PJ
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