Roles of 3,5,3′-Triiodothyronine and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Binding on Thyroid Hormone Receptor Complex Formation
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) bind to thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the promoter region of target genes as monomers, homodimers, and heterodimers with nuclear proteins such as retinoid-X receptors (RXRs). Recently, we observed that T3 decreased TR homodimer, but not TR/RXR heterodimer, binding to TREs, suggesting that the latter complexes may be involved in transcriptional activation of target genes. However, little is known about TR complexes that form in solution. Thus far, there have been only limited studies comparing TR complex formation in solution and on DNA as well as examining the effects of T3 and the putative ligand for RXRs, 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA), on TR complex formation. In this paper, we used a coimmunoprecipitation assay with anti-TRβ1 antibody and the electrophoretic mobility shift assay under similar buffer and incubation conditions to demonstrate that in the absence of T3, TRβ1 is present as a monomer in solution and binds primarily as a homodimer to the chicken lysozyme TRE, F2. In the presence of T3, TRβ1 cannot form a homodimer on F2, but, instead, exists as a liganded monomer in solution. Kinetic studies demonstrated that T3 markedly increased the dissociation rate of TR homodimer from F2. Using similar methods, we observed TRβ1/RXRα heterodimer formation in solution and 10-fold greater formation on F2. Neither T3 nor 9-cis RA significantly affected TRβ1/RXRα heterodimer formation. Taken together, these results suggest that both T3 and TRE binding are important determinants of the formation of specific TR complexes in solution and on DNA.
Yen, PM; Brubaker, JH; Apriletti, JW; Baxter, JD; Chin, WW
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