Triiodothyronine (T3) decreases binding to DNA by T3-receptor homodimers but not receptor-auxiliary protein heterodimers.
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that bind to thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) to mediate positive and negative regulation of transcription of thyroid hormone-responsive genes. TR binding to TREs can be enhanced by interaction with a nuclear protein, triiodothyronine (T3) receptor auxiliary protein (TRAP). There are two major isoforms of thyroid hormone receptors, TR alpha-1 and TR beta-1, which are encoded on two separate genes. We studied the binding of TR alpha-1 and TR beta-1 to several TREs: the chick lysozyme TRE (F2), which is positively regulated by T3; rabbit beta-myosin heavy chain TRE, which is negatively regulated by T3; and an idealized inverted palindrome, TRElap. We demonstrate the formation of homodimers, TR alpha/TR beta dimers, and TR/TRAP heterodimers when receptor is bound to these DNA sequences. Surprisingly, we found that T3 decreased TR alpha-1 and TR beta-1 homodimer binding in a dose-dependent manner to these TREs as well as TR alpha/TR beta dimer binding to F2. In contrast, T3 did not affect TR/TRAP heterodimer binding to TREs suggesting that this heterodimer may be the stable complex occupying TREs in the presence of ligand.
Yen, PM; Darling, DS; Carter, RL; Forgione, M; Umeda, PK; Chin, WW
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