Update on infectious complications following lung transplantation.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lung transplantation is an important therapeutic treatment for many patients with life-threatening pulmonary diseases; however, long-term survival is still relatively limited compared with other solid organ transplants. Over the last year, several articles have been published helping to increase our knowledge of infections in lung transplant recipients. In particular, important new information has been published recently regarding cytomegalovirus (CMV) and fungal infections following lung transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies indicate prolonged (≥12 months) antiviral prophylaxis for CMV after lung transplant may be beneficial in high-risk transplant recipients. Epidemiologic studies show invasive fungal infections are increasingly being recognized following solid organ transplantation, particularly with Aspergillus and Candida species. Pulmonary infections with CMV and Aspergillus are likely contributors to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). SUMMARY: Lung transplantation has many potential posttransplant complications with infection being a major contributor. More information has become available regarding CMV prophylaxis, CMV treatment, pulmonary fungal infection epidemiology, and the role of both CMV and Aspergillus on the development of BOS, which helps toward the goal of increasing long-term survival in lung transplant recipients.
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